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unethical uses of smartphones in healthcare

The idea of supplying healthcare professionals with smartphones does not entirely resolve concerns regarding patient confidentiality; it would be a step in the right direction as healthcare professionals can be encouraged to minimise private information on work owned smartphones. In a separate study, the Ponemon Institute found that data breaches in healthcare are the most expensive to remediate, and the cost is rising. Mobile health apps allow providers convenient access to health-related content to facilitate decision-making. 4. Users should also exercise caution around unsecured wireless networks and unencrypted apps. Examine judicious use of Social Media and its implications in Healthcare Clinical and ethical implications of smartphone use present obstacles for nurses and other healthcare professionals. Furthermore, the attitudinal statement pertaining to confidentially also indicated that participants had significant concerns regarding the use of mobiles to record patient information. In contrast the internet is commonly used in educational and work settings and thus may be perceived as facilitating medical care more so than mobiles. Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine, 2: 14, Pingback: Volume 2, Issue 1 | Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine(), Pingback: The Major BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) Issues Facing Healthcare Industry(), Pingback: The Usage of Mobile Devices in a Clinical Environment - HomeworkDoers | HomeworkDoers(). PERSONAL SMART PHONE USE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN HEALTHCARE 3 Unethical uses of Smartphones in healthcare Personal usage of smart phones like taking a picture of a patients wound, and texting it to a patients family member can lead to data breaches, and exposes patients personal information. Code of Medical Ethics. Community Oncology, 9, 141-142. Most participants used their privately owned mobile during clinical practice (n = 28), whereas the remainder used a mobile owned by their clinical/healthcare workplace (n = 5), and a mobile owned by their non-clinical/healthcare workplace (n = 1). On the other hand, if healthcare professionals were expected to use privately owned mobiles within clinical practice then one could not impose regulations on how these devices are to be used for non-work purposes. Healthcare professionals were more likely to be concerned that patients seeing them use a mobile would think they are using it for non-work purposes as opposed to being seen by a fellow healthcare professional. The three participants that indicated ‘other’ specified that they preferred to use a computer (n = 2) and that they have not looked for apps or had any recommended to them (n = 1). We talk on our smartphones, we text on them, we take pictures and post them to social networks, we communicate in 140-character “tweets,” and share our thoughts and events on our personal networks. One organization to embrace it wholeheartedly is the Mayo Clinic, whose Center for Social Media has a stated mission to "lead the social media revolution in healthcare, contributing to health and well being for people everywhere." Examine personal Smart Phone use and its implications in Healthcare Identify and explain a minimum of 3 unethical uses of Smartphones in healthcare (including text messaging and pictures) Discuss potential benefits to appropriate Smartphone use in healthcare Examine judicious use of Social Media and its implications in Healthcare Electronic health records may represent beneficence because they are alleged to increase access to health care, improve the quality of car … The two participants that would not. Furthermore, eight of these participants were prepared to obtain a smartphone so that they can access medical apps (see figure 1). Despite the great variety of apps available for different tasks, they all have one common aim, which is to assist in clinical practice to improve patient outcomes. However, using an on-line data collection method (i.e., excluding healthcare professionals who do not use the internet) poses a selection bias for our study in that healthcare professionals within our study are likely to have positive attitudes towards using the internet given that they completed the survey on-line. It is encouraging to note that two-thirds of healthcare professionals within our study indicated that clinical/healthcare work owned mobiles should not be used for private purposes. Discussion Given that healthcare professionals are time poor we chose to collect data via an on-line survey because it is quicker to complete a survey by this means than to complete and return a paper based survey via physical mail. Closely related to this topic is that patient confidentiality could be breached when smartphones are used to send messages or images pertaining to patients3,18. Given the ease of being able to perform non-work related tasks (e.g., personal texts) on mobiles it is not surprising that some healthcare professionals have the concern that others think they are using the device for non-work purposes. Are individuals more accepting of the internet than mobile phone apps being used in clinical practice? Just look at the figures: There are more than 100,000 health apps offered by Apple and Android, according to mobile market research firm Research2Guidance. The first two survey questions established whether participants have a healthcare qualification and whether they had practiced within the last two years. Healthcare professionals’ concerns in regards to being perceived to use a mobile for non-work purposes depended on whom they were seen by when using the device. Overall we found that healthcare professionals generally had more favourable attitudes towards internet than mobile use within clinical practice. Communication dependent activities such as coordination of care, transitions across the hospital, follow up after discha… This study demonstrates a level of discordance between participants’ behaviours and their attitudes towards mobile phone use within clinical practice. Examine personal Smart Phone use and its implications in Healthcare Identify and explain a minimum of 3 unethical uses of Smartphones in healthcare (including text messaging and pictures) Discuss potential benefits to appropriate Smartphone use in healthcare Examine judicious use of Social Media and its implications in Healthcare Demographics No healthcare professional was supplied with a smartphone by their clinical/healthcare workplace. Experts are raising concerns about the ethical implications of healthcare data storage and data security practices. Participants were directed to the anonymous survey via a link within the recruitment advertisement. Anaesthesia, 66, 620-631. Just 1 year later, a separate investigation put smartphone ownership among health care professionals in the U.S. at 81 percent, growing to 91 percent in 2012. When healthcare professionals were asked in regards to obtaining information on the internet, 79% would use an internet search engine (e.g., Google) to search for an unfamiliar clinical condition. Smartphones are quickly becoming a nearly ubiquitous technology. Ethics approval was obtained from Monash University’s Human Research Ethics Committee. According to the survey, more than 90,000 mobile health apps are available. Results: Ninety-one per cent of healthcare professionals owned a mobile phone of which 87% used it during clinical practice. One such concern that has been raised is the risk of pathogen transfer3,12,15. Criminal attacks increased by 125 percent in the previous five years, which researchers attribute to two critical facts that cybercriminals recognize. Placing a protective cover over mobiles that can withstand the usual disinfectants used on medical equipment has been suggested but this would only be suitable for touch screen devices and not mobiles with a built in keyboard3,15. In June 2018, the American Medical Association (AMA) issued its first guidelines for how to develop, use and regulate AI. The paper boasts a lengthy bibliography of health and technology papers and attempts to bring the reader up to speed with presenting issues. However, the high proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission in COVID-19 means that standard contact tracing methods are too slow to stop the … Biomedical Engineering Online, 10, 24. These results suggest that most healthcare professionals do make appropriate judgements when viewing online material. A survey of a large hospital corporation in London found that 53.2 percent of nurses considered their smartphone “very useful” or “useful” for helping with clinical duties. Furthermore, 71% of those that use a mobile during clinical practice used a smartphone. But several countries have taken digital epidemiology to the next level in responding to COVID-19. The recent adoption and use of smartphones by both consumers and providers of health care are the focus of this timely report by Jane Sarasohn-Kahn. Furthermore, given that the internet preceded smartphones, we also established healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards internet use in clinical practice as a comparison. 1. delivery of healthcare interventions are clear.3 This is certainly true in orthopaedics, where pictures of deformities, wounds, open fractures and an array of imaging modali-ties (including digital radiography) can be captured by camera or video recording on smartphones for instant discussion with colleagues.4 The images can be sent to other However, despite a few healthcare professionals having a mobile owned by their clinical/healthcare workplace, none were smartphones. 18. Personal smartphones that use unsecure networks and or not password protected pose a … “Sending PHI could lead to loss of employment, financial fines, jail sentences, and loss of one’s nursing license.”. Smartphones are powerful devices that combine the conventional functions of a mobile phone with advanced computing capabilities enabling users to access software applications (commonly termed “apps”)2,3. There are, however, critical concerns related to this trend. An obvious solution would be to supply all healthcare professionals with smartphones so private mobiles are not used within clinical practice. Examine personal Smart Phone use and its implications in Healthcare Identify and explain a minimum of 3 unethical uses of Smartphones in healthcare (including text messaging and pictures) Discuss potential benefits to appropriate Smartphone use in healthcare Examine judicious use of Social Media and its implications in Healthcare Mobile resources for nursing students and nursing faculty. Given that the use of mobiles, and in particularly apps, is relatively recent we were also interested in healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards using mobiles within clinical practice. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171, 1294-1296. Thus apps need to be rigorously evaluated prior to implementation within clinical practice or as a first aid tool for the general public. However, this will not automatically resolve the issue regarding patient confidentiality because some healthcare professionals may use their work smartphone for private purposes. Identify and explain a minimum of 3 unethical uses of Smartphones in healthcare (including text messaging and pictures) Discuss potential benefits to appropriate Smartphone use in healthcare. Mobile phone use during clinical practice Healthcare professionals found it more acceptable and less unprofessional to use the internet than apps when attending to patients. For ten out of eleven analogous statements healthcare professionals had significantly more positive attitudes towards internet than mobile phone use in clinical practice. Of note, despite the prevalence of use of privately owned mobiles within clinical practice in our study, just under half (42%) of all participants indicated that privately owned mobiles should not be used in clinical practice. Although the devices have much to offer for the quality of patient care, precautions must be taken to ensure sensitive data remains safe and secure. 4. Recruitment advertisements were also sent to 71 healthcare facilities throughout Australia. Although smartphones can be beneficial to healthcare facilities, the risks are clear. Revised April 3, 2003. 7. Despite hospital policy restrictions, 67 percent of hospitals interviewed in a Spyglass Consulting Group study reported that staff nurses use personal smartphones for clinical communications and workflow. The following words and combinations of them were used to carry out the search for publications, mHealth, Apps, Ethics. Nurses should limit use to encrypted networks with passwords and firewalls. For the remaining two statements mobile phones were perceived negatively. Contact tracing is a well-established feature of public health practice during infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics. “Click first, care second” photography. However, this problem can be overcome by ensuring that smartphones are kept at a safe distance of one metre from a critical care bed16. As we expected, the clear majority of smartphone use was to access medical references and resources, but team members also used their phones for personal texts and e-mails, and 15% of residents acknowledged using their phones for non-patient care uses (such as web-surfing). Health care organizations that utilize electronic and social media typically have policies governing employee use of such media in the workplace. Mobile phone ownership Patients benefit from disease self-management tools, contact to … However, attitudes for eight of the ten statements pertaining to mobile phone use were positive. Furthermore, 70% would be more likely to use an internet search engine, than an online peer reviewed journal, to obtain additional clinical information while attending to a patient. Many of the issues with smartphones have to do with the ability of companies to always know the location of their smartphones. Eleven statements on the internet were analogous to the statements on mobiles. Paired samples t-tests were conducted for these analogous statements between mobile phones and the internet. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic surgeons. Despite our best efforts to recruit as many healthcare professionals within Australia as possible our sample size is relatively small. Fried, J. J. Although some medical apps appear to be promising in regards to assisting healthcare professionals to provide adequate patient care, the use of mobiles within clinical practice does not come without concerns. According to the survey, more than 90,000 mobile health apps are available. Most participants (91%) owned a mobile. Ethical concerns involving clinical photography using smartphones include patient privacy, unscrupulous use, informed consent, and security. Second, they do not have the resources, processes and technologies to prevent and detect attacks and adequately protect healthcare data. When participants who used medical apps were asked to rate the statement “I find it useful to use medically related mobile phone apps during clinical practice” most answered with ‘agree’ (n = 7) and ‘strongly agree’ (n = 6). Perhaps healthcare, Table 2. Osborne, J. D. D., Phull, J. S., & Matone, L. I. Digital epidemiology—the use of data generated outside the public health system for disease surveillance—has been in use for more than a quarter century [see supplementary materials (SM)]. Hospitals should also have legal and cybersecurity professionals provide accountability and review. Mobile phones were perceived negatively in regard to confidentiality. The aim of the present study was to enumerate the number of healthcare professionals that use mobiles/smartphones and apps during clinical practice. Practical Uses of Smartphones and Mobile Devices in Product and Service Industries. That delicate healthcare data is now available for everyone else to use if it gets out into the public forum. The possibility of security breaches and compromised patient data can undermine the connectivity and safety of healthcare environments. Inappropriate Social Media Posts by Nursing Home Workers, Detailed. Please note: participants rated all statements pertaining to mobile phones before they rated statements pertaining to the internet. The study reported here is part of a larger study which examined individuals’ attitudes towards healthcare professionals using mobile phones within clinical practice. Resuscitation, 82, 1424-1427. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 8, 194-199. This is just one of the many cons of social media in healthcare. Reading, Pennsylvania 19607 Teenagers, young adults and senior citizens alike are glued to their smartphones, wear exercise trackers and have various health trackers hidden under their clothing. Nurses and other healthcare practitioners and patients have been using their smartphones in healthcare in diverse ways. Smartphones in the workplace can lead to many unethical impolite behaviors. 12. Some of these apps are specifically designed for healthcare professionals such as medical calculators5,6, logbooks5, medical reference tools7, medical guidelines such as resuscitation algorithms5, and drug guidelines6. However, it is unknown as to whether these advertisements were displayed. The review included both direct health apps and also apps marketed under the area of well-being in addition to mHealth devices. The study revealed that nurses sent patient data using smartphones, although it was much more common with doctors. Devices vary, but your average smartphone may use more than 60 … "[Smartphones have] so many components from different countries, which all have their own challenges regarding fairness." Alvernia University’s online nursing program assist students in learning how to best use smart technology to improve patient outcomes, while respecting patient privacy and confidentiality. Those that were permitted to use apps reported that their clinical/healthcare employer did not pay for expenses associated with medical apps. In regards to the issue of confidentiality we were particularly interested in establishing who owns the mobile used during clinical practice and the purposes it is used for (e.g., taking photographs of patients’ wounds). On the contrary, Zanner et al. A single breach would potentially compromise thousands of patients’ data, leaving them vulnerable to a medical identity theft.” Research states the following: employee-owned devices are compromised at more than twice the rate of devices owned by corporations; 40 percent of Americans don’t have password protection on their mobile devices; and 51 percent use public Wi-Fi hotspots, which are vulnerable to data breaches. Are policies you can implement reduce risk of spread of pathogens,,... Nor disagree ’ attitudes for eight of these app… smartphones are quickly becoming a nearly ubiquitous.. To wipe down standard medical equipment ( e.g., stethoscopes ) in terms unethical uses of smartphones in healthcare cleaning them but. 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