The Effects of Root-knot Nematode Infection and. . Ferrieri Xiong This apparent defence mechanism has been found in several plant species and is usually reversible (Hubbard et al., 2005). BE 1Department of Entomology, 319 Agriculture Building, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701. All fumigants have low molecular weights and occur as gases or liquids. Lopez-Perez et al. When inoculated with 200,000 nematode eggs, the tomato cultivar that carries the Mi-1.2 resistance gene had significantly greater foliar biomass, root mass, fruit and seed production compared to inoculated susceptible plants (Mi-1.2-). Seeds were counted and weighed (AG285, Mettler Toledo, Columbus, OH) for analysis. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. . . Kuhlmann EFFECTS OF POTATO CYST-NEMATODES ON POTATO PLANTS II. Similarly, when we compared the yields of a different set of near-isogenic tomato cultivars (Mi-1.2+ and Mi-1.2-) that were field-grown in microplots and inoculated with 8,000 eggs/plant or mock-inoculated with water, we did not observe any reductions in mature fruit yield as a result of nematode infection. Dutta Regardless of whether it is acquired or R gene-mediated, any plant trait that blocks pest establishment or limits their proliferation can be considered a source of resistance. TG Plant pathogens and integrated defense responses to infection. Greenhouse Bioassays: To follow up on the microplot assay, two greenhouse assays were performed to measure the impact of Mi-1.2 and of nematode infection at two inoculum levels (assay 1: 20,000 eggs/plant; assay 2: 200,000 eggs/plant) on fruit and seed production, nematode infection, and above and below-ground biomass. Please check for further notifications by email. Naturally-occurring infection rates for the root-knot nematode are influenced by many factors such as soil type, climate, and the availability of other host plants over the course of the year (Jenkins and Taylor, 1967). Many studies of artificially-inoculated plants have shown that Mi-mediated resistance can dramatically reduce root-knot nematode survival, reproduction and gall induction (eg. Barber 4A; ANOVA, F2–89 = 491.427, P ≤ 0.001). The objectives of this study were to examine the potential fitness costs and benefits of the R gene-mediated herbivore resistance, and to explore the role of nematodes as a selection pressure favoring plants that carry Mi-1.2. TCJ of tomato plants. Handrick Turlings Nematode reproduction, as measured by the number of eggs per gram of dry root weight, was significantly lower on the resistant cultivar Motelle (2,800 eggs/g) than on the susceptible cultivar Moneymaker (85,260 eggs/g) (F1,14=30.09, P < 0.0001). Dicke Where there was a significant interaction between treatment and genotype, mean separations were also performed using Student’s t tests (values followed by the same letter are not significantly different from each other at α=0.05) Neither nematode inoculation nor plant genotype had a significant effect on the number or total weight of mature fruits collected, although, in the presence of nematodes, the yield of immature fruits at the end of the season was higher for resistant plants than susceptible plants. Picolo, and cv. Kessler To determine differences in quiescence induced by the different cultivars we analysed the data using a one-way ANOVA procedure. . The filter was transferred immediately onto the drop of caffeine, with the EPNs on the upper side of the disc. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (. NE . The effect of the exudate concentrations was also tested on plant-parasitic nematodes. Statistics: For each assay, tomato yield, seed count and weight, root and foliar dry weight, and nematode reproduction were compared on our 4 treatment groups using full factorial 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s t-test (JMP version 5.01, SAS Institute, Cary, NC). M Recovery was complete for S. carpocapsae, H. megidis, and H. bacteriophora. These dramatic differences in yield resulted from the fact that all but one of the susceptible inoculated plants died before the end of the experiment. LL (2005) grew a susceptible cultivar in naturally-infested soil for three consecutive years and observed abundant galls and nematode eggs on the roots (∼40,000 – 50,000 eggs/ gram root mass). Fruit production: In assay 1, in which plants were inoculated with 20,000 eggs, neither nematode inoculation nor plant genotype had a significant effect on the number or total yield (in grams) of mature fruits collected (Table 3). Control plants were mock-inoculated with water, whereas plants assigned to the nematode treatment were inoculated with 8,000 eggs/plant). No significant cost of resistance was detected in the absence of nematode infection. Hiel M. Ecological costs of induced resistance. Schwachtje J, Minchin PEH, Jahnke S, Van Dongen JT, Schittko U, Baldwin IT. As in insect parasitoids (Casas et al., 2005; Denis et al., 2013), EPNs rely on their lipid reserves while foraging and infecting insect hosts (Patel et al., 1997). LN . MR They were poured into a glass vial (7ml amber glass vial; Suppelco, Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Switzerland) and flooded with 70% ethanol saturated with Oil Red O (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, Switzerland). Fusarium wilt of several plants increases in incidence and severity when the plants are also infected by nematodes. Ali Perry This provides the roots with an escape strategy that is comparable to animals fleeing unfavourable biotic and abiotic conditions. These results indicate that the tomato plants were able to tolerate or compensate for moderate levels of nematode infection. Nematode infection: Nematode data was transformed for analysis using the formula ‘log +1’ to normalize the variances. Stelinski S Gardner SN, Agrawal AA. Perry and Clarke, 1981; Dennijs and Lock, 1992; Perry and Gaur, 1996; Gaur et al., 2000; Wesemael et al., 2006; Pudasaini et al., 2008; Khokon et al., 2009; Oka and Mizukubo, 2009). Whole root systems were dried and weighed after nematode extraction to calculate the number of eggs per gram of dry root tissue. Stolinski Both genotypes suffered a reduction in foliar biomass, but this reduction was significantly greater in the susceptible cultivar (P < 0.05). Pierre Gershenzon In plants that carry Mi-1.2, a hypersensitive reaction (HR), which involves rapid localized cell death, stops the nematode from establishing a feeding site (Dropkin, 1969; Williamson, 1998). Veyrat Kuhlmann Assay 1 utilized a moderate inoculum level (20,000 eggs/ plant), and assay 2 used a high inoculum level (200,000 eggs/plant). 2A; two-way RM ANOVA, F1,139 = 66.839, P ≤ 0.001) and this remained significantly higher over the 18 days of the experiment (Fig. Where there was a significant interaction between treatment and genotype, mean separations were also performed using Student’s t tests (values followed by the same letter are not significantly different from each other at α=0.05). Seed production of plants inoculated with 200,000 nematode eggs. Furthermore, previous studies have not examined the impact of Mi-1.2 on seed production, a key measure of plant fitness that would strongly influence the adaptive value of resistance in an evolutionary context. RHC The results presented here provide a new example of how plant breeding can affect the concentrations of secondary metabolites that are important for plant performance (e.g. E Inheritance of resistance to severe root knot from, Goggin FL, Shah G, Williamson VW, Ullman DE. Manukian Flores-Lara Indeed, EPN mass production has been optimized (Ehlers, 2001), but downstream processes such as storage and transport can still be problematic. Managing nematode populations densities on tomato transplants using crop rotation and a nematicide. Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are the most destructive of all plant pathogens. Hiltpold Ploeg AT. Evans Turlings Jasmonate-induced responses are costly but benefit plants under attack in native populations. Germination rates were recorded every two days for ten days after planting. A Behavior and biology of the tomato psyllid. De Waele Pisum sativum L. cv. About 50 infective juveniles were sampled from each formulation described above. 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